Orangi Town (Urdu: اُورنگی ٹاؤن) is a town in the northwestern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is bordered by New Karachi Town to the north across the Shahrah-e-Zahid Hussain, Gulberg Town to the east across the Gujjar Nala stream, Liaquatabad Town to the south, and SITE Town to the west. The township is currently the largest slum in South Asia. There are 13 official neighborhoods, each with its own council, which has allowed the township to build its own sewer system. Additionally, as only of 18 districts of Karachi, Orangi has government representation, albeit in the lowest tier of the government. It is a lower class settlement with basic amenities of life available to most of the people. Only some part of orangi town can be characterized as a slum.,. Further, Orangi comprises several new developed middle class areas and housing-societies which are still considered slums for statistical purposes because they lack the basic facilities that are provided to most homes.
There are several ethnic groups in Orangi Town including Muhajirs, Punjabis, Sindhis, Kashmiris, Seraikis, Pakhtuns, Balochis, Memons, Bohras,Ismailis, etc. A significant population of these Muhajirs are Biharis who migrated from Bihar in 1947 and East Pakistan in 1971.
Over 99% of the population is Muslim and 75% of the population is Muhajir, However local Muslims are slowly being forced into these townships and claims are made to save face by the Pakistani government. Orangi town has a population of approximately 2.5 million although government records report 700,000 inhabitants. In the last 15 years the Orangi Town's demography has substantially changed, asPakhtun have occupied land and settled in this town in large numbers.. It is the largest town of Karachi.
The population began to grow from 1965 onwards as a residential extension to the Sindh Industrial and Trading Estate (SITE). Orangi became famous in the 1980s when local inhabitants became frustrated at the lack of development in the area by the municipal administration and launched the Orangi Pilot Project under the guidance of Akhtar Hameed Khan. The Orangi area was the largest squatter settlement in Karachi at the time, so the Karachi Metropolitan Corporation (KMC) did not extend services to the Orangi community. The first action of the project was to demand that the KMC should install a sewerage system free of charge but this was refused because KMC did not recognise Orangi. The population mostly comprises blue-collar worker (factory workers) including a substantial Rohingya Muslim refugee community mainly fromBurma.
The local community financed, designed and built their own low-cost sewerage system. The Karachi Metropolitan Corporation (KMC) refused to allow the sewer system to be connected to the existing city sewers because of Orangi's unauthorised status. However, KMC was forced to cooperate when the project attracted worldwide attention and similar projects were set up in three squatter settlements in the city of Sukkur in northern Sindh.
The federal government introduced local government reforms in the year 2000, which eliminated the previous third-tier of government (administrative divisions) and raised the fourth tier (districts) to become the new third tier. The effect in Karachi was the dissolution of the former Karachi Division and the merger of its five districts to form a new Karachi City-District with eighteen autonomous constituent towns including Orangi Town; a move which helped to better administer the area.
The City District Government has initiated the Shahrah-e-Orangi project to rehabilitate the dilapidated road that connects the town with other parts of the city. In addition, the K-III water supply project will supply potable water to Orangi residents.
Orangi stretches out from the Khasa Hills, North Nazimabad and Paposh Nagar towards the northern parts of Karachi. The Khasa Hills forms a natural boundary between Orangi Town and North Nazimabad Town. The City District Government has constructed a road through the Khasa Hills connecting Orangi Town with North Nazimabad Town.
Neighbourhoods[edit source | edit]
Orangi Pilot Project
Orangi poverty alleviation project (Orangi Pilot Project, OPP) was initiated by Akhtar Hameed Khan in 1980. The project was aimed at socio-economic development of the population of the vast Orangi area of Karachi. As the project director, Khan proved to be its dynamic and innovative leader. The project comprises a number of programs, including a people's financed and managed Low-Cost Sanitation Program; a Housing Program; a Basic Health and Family Planning Program; a Program of Supervised Credit for Small Family Enterprise Units; an education Program; and a Rural development Program in the nearby villages.